My Ebay Store

วันเสาร์ที่ 18 สิงหาคม พ.ศ. 2555

Travel Ayutthaya

Travel Ayutthaya

Ayutthaya, full name Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, is an ancient capital and modern city in the Central Plains of Thailand, 85 km north of Bangkok.

Ayutthaya History
Ayutthaya was originally founded in 1350 and over the next few decades developed to be the capital of the Siamese Kingdom. Ayutthaya became the second capital of Siam after Sukhothai.
Ayutthaya is like an island surrounded by three rivers that act as natural barriers for defense. In addition, the rivers brought large and small boats from other important towns in the kingdom and from other nations to engage in commerce. Ayutthaya was both the  administrative and the economic center of the kingdom and was filled with a great diversity of people from different areas.

Rattanakosin Kingdom

Rattanakosin Kingdom

Rattanakosin Kingdom (Thaiอาณาจักรรัตนโกสินทร์IPA: [āːnāːt͡ɕàk ráttanákōːsǐn]) is the fourth traditionally counted kingdom of Thailand. It was founded in 1782 with the establishment of Bangkok as the capital city. Technically, the name continues to refer to present-day Thailand, but this article will attempt to discuss events up until 1932, when absolute monarchy was abolished, and continue at history of Thailand (1932–1973).
The maximum territorial extent of Rattanakosin Kingdom included vassal states ofCambodiaLaos, and some Malay kingdoms. The kingdom was founded by King Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke of the Chakri Dynasty. The first half of this period was a time of consolidation of the kingdom's power, and was punctuated by periodic conflicts withBurmaVietnam and Laos. The later period was one of engagement with colonial powers of Britain and France, in which Siam managed to be the only southeast Asian nation to escape European colonialism. Internally the kingdom developed into a modern centralisednation state with borders defined by its interaction with the Western powers. Significant economic and social progress was made, with an increase in foreign trade, the abolition of slavery and the expansion of education to the emerging middle class. However, there was no substantial political reform until the absolute monarchy was replaced in a revolution in 1932 by the constitutional monarchy.

In 1767, after dominating southeast Asia for almost 400 years, theAyutthaya Kingdom was brought down by invading Burmese armies.
Despite its complete defeat and occupation by Burma, Siam made a rapid recovery. The resistance to Burmese rule was led by a noble of Chinese descent, Taksin, a capable military leader. Initially based atChanthaburi in the south-east, within a year he had defeated the Burmese occupation army and re-established a Siamese state with its capital at Thonburi on the west bank of the Chao Phraya, 20 km from the sea. In 1768 he was crowned as King Taksin (now officially known as Taksin the Great). He rapidly re-united the central Thai heartlands under his rule, and in 1769 he also occupied western Cambodia. He then marched south and re-established Siamese rule over the Malay Peninsula as far south as Penang and Terengganu. Having secured his base in Siam, Taksin attacked the Burmese in the north in 1774 and captured Chiang Mai in 1776, permanently uniting Siam and Lanna. Taksin's leading general in this campaign was Thong Duang, known by the title Chaophraya or Lord Chakri. In 1778 Chakri led a Siamese army which captured Vientiane, also Luang Phrabang, a northern Lao kingdom submitted, and eventually established Siamese domination over Laotian kingdoms.
Despite these successes, by 1779 Taksin was in political trouble at home. He seems to have developed a religious mania, alienating the powerful Buddhist monkhood by claiming to be a sotapanna or divine figure. He was also in troubles with the court officials, Chinese merchants, and missionaries. The foreign observers began to speculate that he would soon be overthrown. In 1782 Taksin sent his armies under Chakri, the future Rama I of Rattanakosin, to invade Cambodia, but while they were away a rebellion broke out in the area around the capital. The rebels, who had wide popular support, offered the throne to General Chakri, the 'supreme general'. Chakri who was on war duty marched back from Cambodia and deposed Taksin, who was purportedly 'secretly executed' shortly after.
Chakri ruled under the name Ramathibodi (he was posthumously given the name Phutthayotfa Chulalok), but is now generally known as KingRama I, first king of the later known Chakri dynasty. One of his first decisions was to move the capital across the river to the village of Bang Makok (meaning "place of olive plums"), which soon became the city of Bangkok. The new capital was located on the island of Rattanakosin, protected from attack by the river to the west and by a series of canals to the north, east and south. Siam thus acquired both its current dynasty and its current capital.

Ayutthaya Art

Ayutthaya Art

Thai Ayutthaya Style Art

  • Thai Ayutthaya art refers to the art and style of the Ayutthaya Kingdomwhich existed from 1350 until 1767. The early period reflects Dvaravati and Lop Buri influences but from the middle of the 15th century it developed to its nationally renowned style, which was inspired by the earlier Sukhothai and U Thong features. Artworks were created in bronze, woodcarving, stucco and sandstone. 
  • Many works of art were destroyed during the Burmese invasions.
  • The art of the period is classified into four periods, first [ 1350 to 15th centuries ] when U Thong influences were predominant, second, from mid 15th century until 17th century during which influences of Sukhothai were dominant, third, in the17th C when the Khmer became vassals of the Ayutthaya Empire and their art was again fashionable, and finally from late 17th century until 1767 when splendor was fashionable and the images of Buddha were ornate with crowns and ornate robes.
Ayutthaya Period Black Lacquer

AYUTTHAYA ART : Art beyond borders

An exhibition at the National Museum showcases works crafted by Siamese artisans for Portuguese emissaries 500 years ago30159840-06.jpg

When the Portuguese came ashore in Ayutthaya 500 years ago, they brought with them not just weaponry, churches and convents, but also art.

There an aesthetic interaction took place. Siamese craftsmen helped further develop their art, and finally created something new - an Ayutthaya-Portuguese genre that inspired successive generations of Portuguese chroniclers, explorers and missionaries.

These precious art objects were taken with them back to Lisbon where they still adorn museums and private collections. Some of these have just returned to their birthplace five centuries on for the exhibition "Thailand and Portugal 500 Years of a Common Past: The Art Legacy" at the National Museum in Bangkok.

Among the limited exhibits are ivory figurines of a reclining Buddha and the young Jesus Christ on loan from the private collection of Alvaro Sequeira Pinto, owner of one of the greatest collections of Portuguese Asian art. He also owns a wood chest, on display in this show too. The only bookcase comes from the National Library in Bangkok.

Created by Siamese artisans, these objects offer a glimpse into the history of Siamese-Portuguese relations.

Myth had it that Siam was ruled by a Christian king and was a distance of 55 days travel from Calicut. It was the Portuguese who helped correct this European image of Siam.

Portugal's Afonso de Albuquerque sent Duarte Fernandes as an ambassador to meet King Rama Thibodi II in 1511. He came bearing a letter proposing commercial agreements, together with a few valuable gifts. The king hosted the Portuguese emissary very fittingly and rejoiced at the attack on Malacca when it came under the rule of the Portuguese.

Fully aware of Portugal's presence in India, the King of Ayutthaya expressed interest in seeking Portuguese help in many ways. He wanted Portuguese merchants to expand Siam's commerce into India and strengthen Siam's army in the wake of Burmese invasions. As a result, Portuguese soldiers became a common sight in Ayutthaya.

The Portuguese figure prominently in temples' murals, lacquer decorations and art objects, underlining their importance to Siam's sovereignty.

A wood chest from the Tavora Sequeira Pinto collection is believed to have originated in Ayutthaya. On its surface is magnificent gilded lacquer work featuring a place with various buildings alternating with ample gardens containing flowerbeds and tanks, fresco houses and gazebos, balustrades delimiting space, large parasols protecting dignitaries and other characters.

We are in the presence of a large number of buildings where sacred, residential, recreation, social and defensive spaces are clearly defined. There are military officers, courtiers, dignitaries, religious men and servants.

The king is placed under an immense parasol. . Others have modest turbans around their heads. At one end musical instruments are being played. Other men hold cocks preparing for a fight.

It's believed that this featured landscape is the Royal Palace of Ayutthaya before its destruction in 1767 and subsequent abandonment.

The military officers were Portuguese.

Another Portuguese soldier clearly appears in the lacquer front of the book case from the National Library in Bangkok.

Some of these soldiers were sufficiently impressed with Siamese craftsmen and artisans in Ayutthaya to commission our artisans to make ivory figurines of Jesus Christ to be placed at their churches in Ayutthaya or back home in Lisbon.

On display are a number of small ivory figures of Christ in different poses. The most striking are poses that resemble various gigantic reclining Buddha sculptures found at temples in Ayutthaya. These figurines are thought to have been crafted by Siamese artisans in Ayutthaya.

One figure is rendered like a reclining Buddha over a mantle of jasmine leaves. The manner in which Christ lies is very Thai, with his right hand supporting the head and the other resting freely along the length of his body.

Another figure features the hand touching the face but the head resting on a more traditional pillow. The hair is long.

But the most beautiful is the figure of Christ lying on a lacquered wooden bed, with a canopy supported by spiralled columns and rounded bases topped with pinnacles and urns. The canopy is concave on top and fully decorated with typical Thai gilded motifs. The small bed is one of a kind and clearly from Southeast Asia

Another one lies embracing a lamb over the Book of Faith. His hair curls into bundles, the eyes are almond shaped, the navel salient and there is a careful treatment of hands and feet.

These artefacts serve as a testament to the artistic exchange that took place five centuries ago between Portugal and Ayutthaya. Given the limited number of surviving art objects on display, there's much to explore in the artistic relations between the two kingdoms.

By Manote Tripathi

My Ebay Store

วันศุกร์ที่ 17 สิงหาคม พ.ศ. 2555

King Naresuan

King Naresuan

Phitsanulok was the birthplace of one of the greatest heroes in Thai history - King Naresuan who was born in 1555. His father, King Mahathammaracha was a descendant of the Phra Ruang dynasty of Sukhothai, and his mother was Queen Phra Wisut Kasattri of the Suwannaphum dynasty of Ayutthaya.
King Naresuan

At the age of nine, he had been taken as hostage to Burma for 6 years. King Naresuan was a great warrior king. He liberated Ayutthaya from Burma while he was the Crown Prince. He led the soldiers into battles to defend the country against Burmese invasions many times. He is also widely known among the Thais nowadays for his heroic efforts. He led the assault of a Burmese camp by climbing the wooden stockade with the blunt side of a saber in his mouth. He had a duel on elephants with the Burmese Crown Prince and slew him. He took the offensive against Burma and also dealt with the Cambodians who made a series of raids. King Naresuan extended Ayutthaya's territory to include Lanna, Lanchang, Cambodia and some parts of Burma. He enforced strict discipline on his soldiers and the people. During his reign, Ayutthaya was a very secure and powerful state.

Apart from being a great warrior, King Naresuan also played a significant role in foreign relations and trade. Realizing the importance of foreign trade, he sent envoys to China and Spain, and cultivated friendly relations with the Europeans. Ayutthaya concluded a treaty of friendship and commerce with Spain, which was the second treaty that Siam made with a European Power. (The first European power with which Siam had a treaty was Portugal.) Under this treaty, Spaniards had the right to reside, to trade and to practice their religion in Siam. At the end of his reign, he exposed Ayutthaya to another western nation - the Dutch.

King Naresuan deserved the honor of being "the Great". He not only restored the national independence but also made Siam such a powerful country that no enemy threatened the walls of Ayutthaya again for a period of one hundred seventy three years.

Three of King Naresuan's weapons and belongings have constituted a part of the Royal Regalia down to the present. The first is the musket with which he shot the Burmese leader in one of the battles to defend Ayutthaya against Burma. Second is the saber that he carried in his mouth during his assault on the Burmese camp at Ayutthaya. The last is the leather hat with a brim cut-off in the shape of a crescent moon, which he was wearing when he engaged in a duel on elephants with the Crown Prince of Burma.

After the decease of King Burengnong, King Angwa became recalcitrant. Nantabureng, the new king of Burma, conscripted troops from the protectorates to suppress the recalcitrance. However, King Nantabureng had a secret plan and assigned his Crown Prince to kill Pra Naresuan on the way.
The Crown Prince ordered Praya Kiat and Praya Ram to conduct this mission. Nevertheless, both army leaders had a chance to see Mahathen Kanchong, who was their monk teacher and therefore disclosed all the secrets. Since the senior monk was Mon and loathed the Burmese, he tried to persuade the two commanders not to follow the Crown Prince’s order.

When Pra Naresuan moved his troops to Kraeng, the monk informed him of the wicked Burmese plan, and this led Pra Naresuan to proclaim independence from Burma by pouring holy water to the earth and brought all the people back to Ayuddhaya. The Burmese troops then followed Pra Naresuan. The spearhead under the control of Surakanma caught up with Pra Naresuan’s troops at the River Stong and saw the troops on the other side of the river bank. Pra Naresuan, seeing that the Burmese troops had caught up, then shot a long gun across the river and killed Surakanma who was on elephant back. The Burmese troops therefore had to retreat.

Major Works

Pra Naresuan was born in Phitsanulok.

Phitsanulok was under the force of Burma. King Burengnong directed key person to be hostages,one of them was Pra Naresuan, who was 9 years old, to live in Hongsavadee.

On August, Burma was victorious on Ayuddhaya. King Burengnong appointed Pra Mahathammaracha to be king.

King Mahathammaracha promoted Pra Naresuan to the position of Crown Prince governing Phitsanulok.

After the decease of king Burengnong, King Angwa became recalcitrant Nantabureng, the new king of Burma, promoted Mangraikayauchava to the position of crown prince. Pra Naresuan attacked Kung Kingdom, and catch the prince of Thai Yai and send him to Hongsavadee.

King Naresuan was proclaimed independent at Muang Kreang in May at 19.00 After that Ayuddhaya was in the war with King of Chaing Mai and Praya Pasim. The troops couldn’t get close to Ayuddhaya.

The troops of Nantabureng went to Ayuddhaya. The troops of crown prince Mungraigayaochava had forced Kamphengphet but Pra Naresuan was fighting to gain Kamphengphet back.

Hongsavadee troops surrounded Ayuddhaya for 5 month, the troops couldn’t attack with Ayuddhaya. So, King Nantabureng decided to go to Burma for retreat his troops. Then King Naresuan and his brother attacked with the navy troops, so that King Nantabureng came back urgently.

King Mahathammaracha died in June. His age is 75 years old.

Pra Naresuan promoted to be king when he was 35 years old and promote Pra Akathotsarot to be the crown prince. After that 4 months the Burmese crown prince took the soldiers to attack Ayuddhaya but they can’t fight with the troops of King Naresuan.

The Burmese Crown Prince took soldiers to attack Ayuddhaya. King Naresuan and Pra Akatosarot led soldiers to Supanburi province to defend the capital. King Naresuan killed the Crown Prince of Burma on the elephant back. Therefore, won the war which would later be known as Yuttahatthi War.

King Naresuan and Pra Akatosarot led soldiers to Kumpa and send to the King of Nakhonsrithammaraj. After that they attack Kampucha and forced it.

The southern of Morn was forced by Ayuddhaya.

King Naresuan and Pra Akatosarot led soldiers to Hongsavadee in December but the troops can’t get close to Hongsa. So they came back.

King Naresuan and Pra Akatosarot led soldiers to Hongsavadee again but Hongsa was destroyed because King of Thong Ou attack before.

After King Naresuan and Pra Akatosarot led soldiers to Thoug Ou and the troops can’t get close to there. He came back in May. In November, King Nantabureng died after that Burma spend to 3 troops.

King Ang Wa promoted to be the King of Burma. In the name of The King Srihasuthammaracha.

King Naresuan and Pra Akatosarot led soldiers to Chaing Mai for to attack Ang Wa but he was sick from decease.

King Naresuan died at Muang Hang when he was 50 years old.

Kingdom of Ayutthaya and Burmese Wars

©Michael Yamashita

©Michael Yamashita

There were 24 Wars between Ayutthaya as capital of Siam and the Burmese:
  • 1539 when the Burmese invaded Muang Chiang Kran [ a border skirmish ]
  • 1548 when the Burmese invade via the 3 pagodas pass during an Ayutthaya dynastic fight
  • 1563 when Ayutthaya was besieged ans surrendered ,then to pay tribute
  • 1568 when the capital, Ayutthaya was taken by the King of Hongsawadi
  • 1584 when Narusuan proclaimed independence of Siam
  • 1584 when the Siamese fought the Governor of Bassein
  • 1585 when the Burmese sent the viceroy of Chiang Mai to fight the Siamese at Ban Saket
  • 1590 when the Burmese Maha Uparat came the first time
  • 1592 when Naruan fought the Maha Uparat on elephants in single combat
  • 1592 when the Siamese attached Tavoy & Tenasserin in Burma
  • 1594 when Narusuan took the Mon Provinces
  • 1595 when Narusuan attacked Hongsawadi the first time
  • 1599 when Narusuan attacked Hongsawadi the second time
  • 1604 Narusuan's last war when he died on route to invade the Shan states via Lan Na
  • 1613 Burmese take Tavoy & Tenasserim, but Siam recovers these
  • 1614 Burmese besiege and take Chiang Mai
  • 1662 Burmese attack and take Tavoy
  • 1662 Siamese [ Narai ] sends Kosa Lek to besiege and take Chiang Mai while Ava is attacked by Ho
  • 1663 Burmese attack through the 3 Pagodas pass to Sai Yok in Siamese Territory
  • 1664 Siamese [ Narai ] mounts a 3 army attack in Burma
  • 1759 Burmese invade and take Mon ports and besiege Ayuthaya
  • 1764 Burmese retake Mon ports, then maruad and attack the Southern Provinces of Siam
  • 1767 Burmese from Lan Na besiege, conquer and destroy Ayutthaya

Temple In Ayutthaya

Wat  Yai-Chaimongkol
Wat  Putthaisawan
Wat  Chai-Wattanaram
Wat  Pra-Ram
Wat Mahathat Ayutthaya
Wat  Pra-Sri-San-Phet
Wat  Pra-Nun-Chuang
My Amulet Store

Ayutthaya Historical Park

Ayutthaya Historical Park is the ruins of the former capital of the Kingdom of Siam. It is the site of mass murder, rape and enslavement of Siamese people and destruction of the Ayutthaya city, its art and buildings by the Burmese in 1767.
Also close for tourism are the ancient city of Lop buri and the Summer Palace. Ramathibodi [ U Thong ] and remained the capital of The Kingdom of Siam for 417 years until it was destroyed by the Burmese invaders in 1767.
Ayutthaya is important as it was the center of the Ayutthaya Kingdom for 417 years, the creative center for the Ayutthaya style of art, the defining kingdom in Southeast Asia and the start for the subsequent Bangkok Empire which was later founded by the survivors of the Burmese sacking.
The Kingdom saw 5 dynasties, 33 kings and was involved in 70 wars. In 1352, King Ramathibodi of Ayutthaya conquered the Khmer and in 1378 the Ayutthaya Kingdom conquered Sukhothai to its north.
Again in 1431 the Ayutthaya Kingdom waged war with the Khmer finally sacking Angkor after a 7 months siege. From 1548-1578 the city was under siege from the Burmese. In 1767 the City and Empire collapsed and was sacked and burnt down.
Ayutthaya Historical Park is the most important tourist site for Thailand tourism outside Bangkok in Central Thailand. Ayutthaya is a one hour drive north from Bangkok.
To understand Ayutthaya one needs to understand the belief systems, the role of personalities including foreigners, the role of rivers and the canal system, the role of elephants and guns in warfare, the places of cultural heritage, the strengths and weaknesses of Kings and other royal and noble members in Siam society and the role of foreign communities from Japan, the muslim world, Portugal, France, Holland and Britain. Well informed with a sense of history, events and people a trip to Ayutthaya is well worth while.
When taking tours be careful to insist on giving enough time to see these important sites and not be diverted with time wasting diversions. To see everything requires several days. If you seek to see it all in one day a private tour or taxi is needed with an early start.
Ayutthaya was an international trading center in Southeast Asia and a visit to the ruins, temples and monuments today will be greatly enhanced by prior reading about the characters who shaped Ayutthaya, their belief systems and fate in history.
This is a very exotic period in Thai history when Kings and their subjects believed Kings were gods, when the Catholic Church from France sought to change Siamese Buddhist minds, when Portuguese traders controlled trade and Portuguese mercenaries influenced war selling their modern methods of warfare and when Asian feudal Kings played war between themselves and with other lives as a game of egos and adventure.